Citicoline: Mechanism of Action and Clinical Efficacy in the Treatment of Ischemic Stroke, Chronic Cerebrovascular Disorders and Traumatic Brain Injury
Keywords:citicoline, ischemic stroke, chronic cerebrovascular disorder, traumatic brain injury
Citicoline is nootropic drug that exhibits neuroprotective and neuroreparative activity, improves brain wave activity. Studies have shown that citicoline is effective and safe in the treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute and subacute period, and this treatment usually begins within the first 24 hours after stroke onset and lasts for at least 6 weeks. This leads to a reduction in infarction focus volume, mortality and disability rate of patients and, furthermore, increases the probability of complete recovery in 3 months after the stroke. Patients are recommended to continue taking citicoline at subsequent stages of rehabilitation (for 6 months — 1 year after stroke), as it makes an additional contribution to improving their cognitive functions. It was demonstrated the efficacy and safety of citicoline in the treatment of chronic cerebrovascular disorders in the elderly (improved memory and behavior) and of traumatic brain injury (decreased cerebral edema, a more rapid recovery of consciousness, memory and motor function recovery at a higher level). However, the findings need to be confirmed in larger studies.
Citicoline induces angiogenesis improving survival of vascular/human brain microvessel endothelial cells through pathways involving ERK1/2 and insulin receptor substrate-1 / Krupinski J., Abudawood M., Matou-Nasri S. et al. // Vasc. Cell. — 2012. — V. 4, № 20. — doi: 10.1186/2045-824X-4-20.
Grieb P. Neuroprotective properties of citicoline: facts, doubts and unresolved issues // CNS Drugs. — 2014. — V. 28, № 3. — P. 185-193.
Adibhatla R.M., Hatcher J.F., Dempsey R.J. Citicoline: neuroprotective mechanisms in cerebral ischemia // J. Neurochem. — 2002. — V. 80, № 1. — P. 12-23.
Álvarez-Sabín J., Román G.C. The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke // Brain Sci. — 2013. — V. 3. — P. 1395-1414.
Qureshi I., Endres J.R. Citicoline: A Novel Therapeutic Agent with Neuroprotective, Neuromodulatory, and Neuroregenerative Pro-perties // Natural Medicine Journal. — 2010. — V. 2, № 6. — P. 11-25.
Citicoline // Alternative Medicine Review. — 2008. — V. 13, № 1. — P. 50-57.
Role of Citicoline in Ischaemic Stroke / Gupta S.K., Gupta A., Gondhotra D., Gupta A., Gupta S. // JK Science. — 2008. — V. 10, № 4. — P. 160-162.
Conant R., Schauss A.G. Therapeutic applications of citicoline for stroke and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a review of the literature // Altern. Med. Rev. — 2004. — V. 9, № 1. — P. 17-31.
Cho H.J., Kim Y.J. Efficacy and safety of oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: drug surveillance study in 4,191 cases // Methods Find Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. — 2009. — V. 31, № 3. —
Dávalos A., Secades J. Citicoline preclinical and clinical update 2009–2010 // Stroke. — 2011. — V. 42. — P. S36-S9.
Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: an individual patient data pooling analysis of clinical trials / Dávalos A., Castillo J., Álvarez-Sabín J. et al. // Stroke. — 2002. — V. 33, № 12. — P. 2850-2857.
Saver J.L. Citicoline: update on a promising and widely available agent for neuroprotection and neurorepair // Rev. Neurol. Dis. — 2008. — V. 5, № 4. — P. 167-177.
Adibhatla R.M., Hatcher J.F. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) in stroke and other NS disorders // Neurochem. Res. — 2005. — V. 30, № 1. — P. 15-23.
Secades J.J. Probably role of citicoline in stroke rehabilitation: review of the literature // Rev. Neurol. — 2012. — V. 54, № 3. — P. 173-179.
Álvarez-Sabín J., Román G.C. Citicoline in vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia after stroke // Stroke. — 2011. — V. 42. — P. S40-S43.
Fioravanti M., Yanagi M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly // Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. — 2004. — V. 2. — CD000269.
Сейвер Д.Л. Цитиколин: новые данные о перспективном и широкодоступном средстве нейропротекции и нейрорепарации // Consilium Medicum Ukraina. — 2012. — Т. 6, № 8. — С. 29-33.
Copyright (c) 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEUROLOGICAL JOURNAL
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.