Venous discirculation and cognitive impairment

Authors

  • M.M. Oros Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • M.M. Oros Jr Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine, Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0713.17.6.2021.242235

Keywords:

venous discirculation, venous tensionv diosminum, Flego

Abstract

This article considers the aging impact on the functional and structural integrity of venous cerebral circulation from the standpoint of potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. It was reported about venous collagenosis in the brain with apparent leukoaraiosis that demonstrates the participation of pathological re-structure of the venous wall in impairment of white matter both in natural aging and in Alzheimer’s disease. It is likely that due to an age-related decrease in elasticity, the internal jugular vein loses its compensatory ability to increase transmural pressure and therefore results in venous hypertension in the cerebral venous system. Diosminum increases the tone of venous and lymphatic vessels, decreases venous and lymphatic stasis, strengthens the capillary walls and reduces their permeability, has anti-inflammatory, antiedemic, and analgesic effects, improves microcirculation and tissue trophicity, prevents thrombosis. Hesperidin strengthens the walls of small vessels that reduces their permeability and therefore decreases the edemas.

References

Aiello A.Е., Chiu Y.L., Frasca D. How does cytomegalovirus factor into diseases of aging and vaccine responses, and by what mechanisms? Geroscience. 2017. 39. 261-271. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9983-9.

Akkawi N.М., Agosti C., Borroni B., Rozzini L., Magoni M., Vignolo L.А., Padovani A. Jugular valve incompetence: a study using air contrast ultrasonography on a general population. J. Ultrasound. Med. 2002. 21. 747-751. doi: 10.7863/jum.2002.21.7.747.

Al-Mujaini A.S., Montana C.C. Valsalva retinopathy in pregnancy: a case report. J. Med. Case Reports. 2008. 2. 101. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-101.

Albano B., Gandolfo C., Del Sette M. Post-coital intra-cerebral venous hemorrhage in a 78-year-old man with jugular valve incompetence: a case report. J. Med. Case Reports. 2010. 4. 225. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-225.

Alosco M.L., Brickman A.М., Spitznagel M.В. et al. Independent and interactive effects of blood pressure and cardiac function on brain volume and white matter hyperintensities in heart failure. J. Am. Soc. Hypertens. 2013. 7. 336-343. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2013.04.011.

Altamura C., Scrascia F., Quattrocchi C.С. et al. Regional MRI diffusion, white-matter hyperintensities, and cognitive function in Alz-heimer’s disease and vascular dementia. J. Clin. Neurol. 2016. 12. 201-208. doi: 10.3988/jcn.2016.12.2.201.

An J.Y., Quarles E.K., Mekvanich S. et al. Rapamycin treatment attenuates age-associated periodontitis in mice. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 457-463. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9994-6.

Arbeille P., Fomina G., Roumy J., Alferova I., Tobal N., He-rault S. Adaptation of the left heart, cerebral and femoral arteries, and jugular and femoral veins during short- and long-term head-down tilt and spaceflights. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2001. 86. 157-168. doi: 10.1007/s004210100473.

Armstrong P.J., Sutherland R., Scott D.H. The effect of position and different manoeuvres on internal jugular vein diameter size. Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 1994. 38. 229-231. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.1994.tb03879.x.

Arvanitakis Z., Capuano A.W., Leurgans S.Е. et al. The relationship of cerebral vessel pathology to brain microinfarcts. Brain Pathol. 2017. 27. 77-85. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12365.

Arvanitakis Z., Leurgans S.E., Barnes L.L. et al. Microinfarct pathology, dementia, and cognitive systems. Stroke. 2011. 42. 722-727. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.595082; Fulop G.A., Tarantini S., Yabluchanskiy A. et al. Role of age-related alterations of the cerebral venous circulation in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment. AJP-Heart Circ. Physiol. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00776.2018. Downloaded from journals.physiology.org/journal/ajpheart (195.016.078.094) on July 27, 2021.

Ashpole N.М., Logan S., Yabluchanskiy A. et al. IGF-1 has sexually dimorphic, pleiotropic, and time-dependent effects on healthspan, pathology, and lifespan. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 129-145. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9971-0.

Atwood C.S., Hayashi K., Meethal S.V., Gonzales T., Bo-wen R.L. Does the degree of endocrine dyscrasia post-reproduction dictate post-reproductive lifespan? Lessons from semelparous and iteroparous species. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 103-116. doi: 10.1007/s11357-016-9955-5.

Auletta L., Greco A., Albanese S., Meomartino L., Salvatore M., Mancini M. Original research: feasibility and safety of two surgical techniques for the development of an animal model of jugular vein occlusion. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 2017. 242. 22-28. doi: 10.1177/1535370216657446.

Bailey-Downs L.C., Mitschelen M., Sosnowska D. et al. Li-ver-specific knockdown of IGF-1 decreases vascular oxidative stress resistance by impairing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response: a novel model of vascular aging. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2012. 67A. 313-329. doi: 10.1093/gerona/ glr164.

Banki E., Sosnowska D., Tucsek Z. et al. Age-related decline of autocrine pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide impairs angiogenic capacity of rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2015. 70. 665-674. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glu116.

Bateman G.A. The pathophysiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: cerebral ischemia or altered venous hemodyna-mics? AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2008. 29. 198-203. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A0739.

Bateman G.A. Pulse-wave encephalopathy: a comparative study of the hydrodynamics of leukoaraiosis and normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neuroradiology. 2002. 44. 740-748. doi: 10.1007/s00234-002-0812-0.

Bateman G.А., Levi C.R., Schofield P., Wang Y., Lovett E.C. The venous manifestations of pulse wave encephalopathy: windkessel dysfunction in normal aging and senile dementia. Neuroradiology. 2008. 50. 491-497. doi: 10.1007/s00234-008-0374-x.

Beer C., Ebenezer E., Fenner S., Lautenschlager N.Т., Arnolda L., Flicker L., Almeida O.P. Contributors to cognitive impairment in congestive heart failure: a pilot case-control study. Intern. Med. J. 2009. 39. 600-605. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2008.01790.x.

Beggs C.B. Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis. BMC Med. 2013. 11. 142. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-142.

Beggs C., Chung C.Р., Bergsland N. et al. Jugular venous reflux and brain parenchyma volumes in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Neurol. 2013. 13. 157. doi: 10.1186/1471-377-13-157.

Belghali M., Chastan N., Cignetti F., Davenne D., Dec-ker L.M. Loss of gait control assessed by cognitive-motor dual-tasks: pros and cons in detecting people at risk of developing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 305-329. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9977-7.

Belov P., Magnano C., Krawiecki J. еt al. Age-related brain atrophy may be mitigated by internal jugular vein enlargement in male individuals without neurologic disease. Phlebology. 2017. 32. 125-134. doi: 10.1177/0268355516633610.

Bennis M.Т., Schneider A., Victoria B. et al. The role of transplanted visceral fat from the long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice on insulin signaling. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 51-59. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9957-y.

Benveniste H., Lee H., Volkow N.D. The glymphatic pathway: waste removal from the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid transport. Neuroscientist. 2017. 23. 454-465. doi: 10.1177/1073858417691030.

Bérczi V., Molnár A.А., Apor A. et al. Non-invasive assessment of human large vein diameter, capacity, distensibility and ellipticity in situ: dependence on anatomical location, age, body position and pressure. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005. 95. 283-289. doi: 10.1007/s00421-005-0002-y.

Bernier M., Wahl D., Ali A. et al. Resveratrol supplementation confers neuroprotection in cortical brain tissue of non-human primates fed a high-fat/sucrose diet. Aging (Albany NY). 2016. 8. 899-916. doi: 10.18632/aging.100942.

Bilston L.Е., Fletcher D.F., Brodbelt A.R., Stoodley M.A. Arterial pulsation-driven cerebrospinal fluid flow in the perivascular space: a computational model. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin. 2003. 6. 235-241. doi: 10.1080/10255840310001606116.

Ble A., Ranzini M., Zurlo A. et al. Leukoaraiosis is associated with functional impairment in older patients with Alzheimer’s disease but not vascular dementia. J. Nutr. Health Aging. 2006. 10. 31-35.

Blodgett J.M., Theou O., Howlett S.Е., Rockwood K. A frailty index from common clinical and laboratory tests predicts increased risk of death across the life course. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 447-455. doi: 10.1007/ s11357-017-9993-7.

Bouvy W.Н., Kuijf H.J., Zwanenburg J.J. et al.; Utrecht Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) Study group. Abnormalities of cerebral deep medullary veins on 7 Tesla MRI in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2017. 57. 705-710. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160952.

Brinker T., Stopa E., Morrison J., Klinge P. A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Fluids Barriers CNS. 2014. 11. 10. doi: 10.1186/2045-8118-11-10.

Brown W.R., Moody D.М., Challa V.R., Thore C.R., Anstrom J.A. Venous collagenosis and arteriolar tortuosity in leukoaraiosis. J. Neurol. Sci. 2002. 203–204. 159-163. doi: 10.1016/S0022-510X(02)00283-6.

Brundel M., de Bresser J., van Dillen J.J., Kappelle L.J., Biessels G.J. Cerebral microinfarcts: a systematic review of neuropathological studies. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2012. 32. 425-436. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2011.200.

Caldas J.R., Panerai R.В., Haunton V.J. et al. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in ischemic heart failure. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2017. 312. R108-R113. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00361.2016.

Chai C., Wang Z., Fan L. et al. Increased number and distribution of cerebral microbleeds is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in hemodialysis patients: a longitudinal study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016. 95. e2974. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002974.

Chapman-Davies A., Lazarevic A. Valsalva maculopathy. Clin. Exp Optom. 2002. 85. 42-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1444-0938.2002.tb03071.x.

Cheung C.Y., Ong Y.Т., Ikram M.K. еt al. Microvascular network alterations in the retina of patients with Alzheimer’s di-sease. Alzheimers Dement. 2014. 10. 135-142. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz. 2013.06.009.

Childs B.G., Baker D.J., Wijshake T. et al. Senescent intimal foam cells are deleterious at all stages of atherosclerosis. Science. 2016. 354. 472-477. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf6659.

Choi B.R., Kim J.S., Yang Y.J. et al. Factors associated with decreased cerebral blood flow in congestive heart failure seconda-ry to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am. J. Cardiol. 2006. 97. 13651369. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.11.059.

Chung C.Р., Beggs C., Wang P.N. et al. Jugular venous reflux and white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2014. 39. 601-609. doi: 10.3233/JAD-131112.

Chung C.Р., Cheng C.Y., Zivadinov R. et al. Jugular venous reflux and plasma endothelin-1 are associated with cough syncope: a case control pilot study. BMC Neurol. 2013. 13. 9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-13-9.

Chung C.Р., Hu H.H. Pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis: role of jugular venous reflux. Med. Hypotheses. 2010. 75. 85-90. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy. 2010.01.042.

Chung C.Р., Lin Y.J., Chao A.С. et al. Jugular venous hemodynamic changes with aging. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2010. 36. 1776-1782. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.07.006.

Coffman J.A., Torello M.W., Bornstein R.А. et al. Leukoaraiosis in asymptomatic adult offspring of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Biol. Psychiatry. 1990. 27. 1244-1248. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(90)90422-X.

Comi G., Battaglia M.А., Bertolotto A. et al. Italian multicentre observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (CoSMo study): rationale, design, and methodology. Neurol. Sci. 2013. 34. 1297-1307. doi: 10.1007/s10072-012-1269-5.

Cornwell W.К. 3rd, Levine B.D. Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have exaggerated reductions in cerebral blood flow during upright posture. JACC Heart Fail. 2015. 3. 176-179. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.10.006.

Coutinho E., Silva A.М., Freitas C., Santos E. Graves disease presenting as pseudotumor cerebri: a case report. J. Med. Case Reports. 2011. 5. 68. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-68.

Crawford P.М., West C.R., Chadwick D.W., Shaw M.D. Arteriovenous malformations of the brain: natural history in unopera-ted patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 1986. 49. 1-10. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.49.1.1.

Csiszar A., Gautam T., Sosnowska D. et al. Caloric restriction confers persistent antioxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells of aged rats. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2014. 307. H292-H306. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00307.2014.

Csiszar A., Labinskyy N., Jimenez R. et al. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory vasoprotective effects of caloric restriction in aging: role of circulating factors and SIRT1. Mech. Ageing Dev. 2009. 130. 518-527. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2009.06.004.

Csiszar A., Labinskyy N., Smith K., Rivera A., Orosz Z., Ungvari Z. Vasculoprotective effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-β treatment in aging. Am. J. Pathol. 2007. 170. 388-698. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2007.060708.

Csiszar A., Sosnowska D., Wang M. et al. Age-associated proinflammatory secretory phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells from the non-human primate Macaca mulatta: reversal by resveratrol treatment. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2012. 67. 811-820. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glr228.

Csiszar A., Tarantini S., Fülöp G.А. et al. Hypertension impairs neurovascular coupling and promotes microvascular injury: role in exacerbation of Alzheimer’s disease. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 359-372. doi: 10. 1007/s11357-017-9991-9.

Csiszar A., Ungvari Z., Edwards J.G. et al. Aging-induced phenotypic changes and oxidative stress impair coronary arteriolar function. Circ. Res. 2002. 90. 1159-1166. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000020401.61826.EA.

Csiszar A., Ungvari Z., Koller A., Edwards J.G., Kaley G. Aging-induced proinflammatory shift in cytokine expression profile in coronary arteries. FASEB J. 2003. 17. 1183-1185. doi: 10.1096/fj.02-1049fje.

Csiszar A., Ungvari Z., Koller A., Edwards J.G., Kaley G. Proinflammatory phenotype of coronary arteries promotes endothelial apoptosis in aging. Physiol. Genomics. 2004. 17. 21-30. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics. 00136.2003.

Dawson J.W. XVIII. The histology of disseminated sclerosis. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 1916. 50. 517-740. doi: 10.1017/S0080456800027174.

Deepa S.S., Bhaskaran S., Espinoza S. et al. A new mouse model of frailty: the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase knockout mouse. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 187-198. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9975-9.

dela Paz N.G., D’Amore P.A. Arterial versus venous endothelial cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2009. 335. 5-16. doi: 10.1007/s00441-008-0706-5.

Dhanger S., Vaidiyanathan B., Tripathy D.K. Internal jugular venous valve: Well-known but mostly neglected. Indian J. Anaesth. 2016. 60. 602-603. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.187813.

Dichgans M., Leys D. Vascular cognitive impairment. Circ. Res. 2017. 120. 573-591. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308426.

Doepp F., Schreiber S.J., von Münster T. et al. How does the blood leave the brain? A systematic ultrasound analysis of cerebral venous drainage patterns. Neuroradiology. 2004. 46. 565-570. doi: 10.1007/s00234-004-1213-3.

Egemen E., Solaroglu I. Anatomy of Cerebral Veins and Dural Sinuses. In: Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2nd ed., edited by Caplan L.R., Leary M.С., Thomas A.J., Zhang J.H., Biller J., Lo E.Н., and Yenari M. London: Academic, 2017.

Eide P.К., Pripp A.H. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients compared to a population-based cohort from the HUNT3 survey. Fluids Barriers CNS. 2014. 11. 19. doi: 10.1186/2045-8118-11-19.

Espay A.J., Da Prat G.А. et al. Deconstructing normal pressure hydrocephalus: ventriculomegaly as early sign of neurodegeneration. Ann. Neurol. 2017. 82. 503-513. doi: 10.1002/ana.25046.

Fang Y., McFadden S., Darcy J. et al. Differential effects of early-life nutrient restriction in long-lived GHR-KO and normal mice. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 347-356. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9978-6.

Farkas E., Luiten P.G. Cerebral microvascular pathology in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Prog. Neurobiol. 2001. 64. 575-611. doi: 10.1016/ S0301-0082(00)00068-X.

Fisher J., Vaghaiwalla F., Tsitlik J. et al. Determinants and clinical significance of jugular venous valve competence. Circulation. 1982. 65. 188-196. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.65.1.188.

Fronek A., Criqui M.Н., Denenberg J., Langer R.D. Common femoral vein dimensions and hemodynamics including Valsalva response as a function of sex, age, and ethnicity in a population study. J. Vasc. Surg. 2001. 33. 1050-1056. doi: 10.1067/mva.2001.113496.

Fukazawa K., Aguina L., Pretto E.А. Jr. Internal jugular valve and central catheter placement. Anesthesiology. 2010. 112. 979. doi: 10.1097/ ALN.0b013e3181d436de.

Fulop G.А., Kiss T., Tarantini S. et al. Nrf2 deficiency in aged mice exacerbates cellular senescence promoting cerebrovascular inflammation. Geroscience. 2018. 40. 513-521. doi: 10.1007/s11357-018-0047-6.

Fulop G.А., Ramirez-Perez F.I., Kiss T. et al. IGF-1 deficiency promotes pathological remodeling of cerebral arteries: a potential mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhages in aging. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2019. 74. 446-454. doi: 10.1093/gerona/ gly144.

Gascho J.A., Fanelli C., Zelis R. Aging reduces venous distensibility and the venodilatory response to nitroglycerin in normal subjects. Am. J. Cardiol. 1989. 63. 1267-1270. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(89)90188-4.

Georgiadis D., Sievert M., Cencetti S. et al. Сеrebrovascular reactivity is impaired in patients with cardiac failure. Eur. Heart J. 2000. 21. 407-413. doi: 10.1053/euhj. 1999.1742.

Gold G., Giannakopoulos P., Herrmann F.R., Bouras C., Kövari E. Identification of Alzheimer and vascular lesion thresholds for mixed dementia. Brain 2007. 130. 2830-2836. doi: 10.1093/brain/awm228.

Gopinath B., Flood V.M., Wang J.J., Rochtchina E., Wong T.Y., Mitchell P. Is quality of diet associated with the microvasculature? An analysis of diet quality and retinal vascular calibre in older adults. Br. J. Nutr. 2013. 110. 739-746. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512005491.

Gorelick P.В., Scuteri A., Black S.Е. et al.; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, and Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011. 42. 2672-2713. doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3182299496.

Grant C.D., Jafari N., Hou L. et al. A longitudinal study of DNA methylation as a potential mediator of age-related diabetes risk. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 475-489. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-0001-z.

Grimmig B., Kim S.H., Nash K., Bickford P.С., Douglas Shytle R. Neuroprotective mechanisms of astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic role in preserving cognitive function in age and neurodegeneration. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 19-32. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9958-x.

Gruhn N., Larsen F.S., Boesgaard S. et al. Cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure before and after heart transplantation. Stroke. 2001. 32. 2530-2533. doi: 10.1161/hs1101.098360.

Han H.C. Twisted blood vessels: symptoms, etiology and biomechanical mechanisms. J. Vasc. Res. 2012. 49. 185-197. doi: 10.1159/000335123.

Hanif S., Abodunde O., Ali Z., Pidgeon C. Age related outcome in acute subdural haematoma following traumatic head injury. Ir. Med. J. 2009. 102. 255-257.

Hartmann D.А., Hyacinth H.І., Liao F.F., Shih A.Y. Does pathology of small venules contribute to cerebral microinfarcts and dementia? J. Neurochem. 2018. 144. 517-526. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14228.

He L., Vanlandewijck M., Mäe M.А. et al. Single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse brain and lung vascular and vessel-associated cell types. Sci. Data. 2018. 5. 180160. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2018.160.

Hemmeryckx B., Emmerechts J., Bovill E.G., Hoylaerts M.F., Lijnen H.R. Effect of ageing on the murine venous circulation. Histochem. Cell Biol. 2012. 137. 537-546. doi: 10.1007/s00418-012-0913-8.

Hernandez J.P., Franke W.D. Effects of a 6-mo endurance-training program on venous compliance and maximal lower body negative pressure in older men and women. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005. 99. 1070-1077. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01169.2004.

Hilal S., Saini M., Tan C.S. et al. Cerebral microbleeds and cognition: the epidemiology of dementia in Singapore study. Alzheimer. Dis. Assoc. Disord. 2014. 28. 106-112. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0000000000000015.

Hooghiemstra A.M., Bertens A.S., Leeuwis A.E. et al.; Heart-Brain Connection Consortium. The missing link in the pathophysio-logy of vascular cognitive impairment: design of the Heart-Brain Study. Cerebrovasc. Dis. Extra. 2017. 7. 140-152. doi: 10.1159/000480738.

Iliff J.J., Wang M., Liao Y. et al. A paravascular pathway facilitates CSF flow through the brain parenchyma and the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid. Sci. Transl. Med. 2012. 4. 147ra111. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003748.

Inano S., Itoh D., Takao H. et al. High signal intensity in the dural sinuses on 3D-TOF MR angiography at 3.0 T. Clin. Imaging. 2010. 34. 332-336. doi: 10.1016/ j.clinimag.2009.06.028.

Jackson S.E., Redeker A., Arens R. et al. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging. Geroscience. 2017. 39. 273-291.

Jacobs H.I., Clerx L., Gronenschild E.Н., Aalten Р., Verhey F.R. White matter hyperintensities are positively associated with cortical thickness in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2014. 39. 409-422. doi: 10.3233/JAD-131232.

Jahrling J.B., Lin A.L., DeRosa N. et al. mTOR drives cerebral blood flow and memory deficits in LDLR-/- mice modeling athe-rosclerosis and vascular cognitive impairment. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 2018. 38. 58-74. doi: 10.1177/0271678X17705973.

Jang J., Kim B.S., Kim B.Y. et al. Reflux venous flow in dural sinus and internal jugular vein on 3D time-of-flight MR angiography. Neuroradiology. 2013. 55. 1205-1211. doi: 10.1007/s00234-013-1239-5.

Jefferson A.L., Himali J.J., Beiser A.S. et al. Cardiac index is associated with brain aging: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2010. 122. 690-697. doi: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.109.905091.

Jessen N.А., Munk A.S., Lundgaard I., Nedergaard M. The glymphatic system: a beginner’s guide. Neurochem. Res. 2015. 40. 2583-2599. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1581-6.

Jin B.J., Smith A.J., Verkman A.S. Spatial model of convective solute transport in brain extracellular space does not support a “glymphatic” mechanism. J. Gen. Physiol. 2016. 148. 489-501. doi: 10.1085/jgp. 201611684.

Jorgensen D.R., Shaaban C.Е., Wiley C.А. et al. A population neuroscience approach to the study of cerebral small vessel disease in midlife and late life: an invited review. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2018. 314. H1117-H1136. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00535.2017.

Juurlink B.H. Is there a pulse wave encephalopathy component to multiple sclerosis? Curr. Neurovasc. Res. 2015. 12. 199-209. doi: 10.2174/1567202612666150311113205.

Kandel B.М., Avants B.В., Gee J.C. et al. White matter hyperintensities are more highly associated with preclinical Alz-heimer’s disease than imaging and cognitive markers of neurodegeneration. Alzheimers Dement. (Amst). 2016. 4. 18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.dadm.2016.03.001.

Kang Y., Kim E., Kim J.H. et al. Time of flight MR angiography assessment casts doubt on the association between transient global amnesia and intracranial jugular venous reflux. Eur. Radiol. 2015. 25. 703-709. doi: 10.1007/s00330-014-3448-7.

Keith J., Gao F.Q., Noor R. et al. Collagenosis of the deep medullary veins: an underrecognized pathologic correlate of white matter hyperintensities and periventricular infarction? J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.2017. 76. 299-312. doi: 10.1093/jnen/nlx009.

Shaaban C.Е., Aizenstein H.J., Jorgensen D.R. et al.; LIFE Study Group. In vivo imaging of venous side cerebral small-vessel dise-ase in older adults: an MRI method at 7T. AJNR: Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2017. 38. 1923-1928. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5327.

https://biopax.ru/articles/gesperidin/

Published

2021-11-23

Issue

Section

Review