Modern aspects of neuropathogenesis and neurological manifestations of COVID-19


  • L.A. Dziak SI “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of MH of Ukraine”, Dnipro, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • O.S. Tsurkalenko SI “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of MH of Ukraine”, Dnipro, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • K.V. Chekha SI “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of MH of Ukraine”, Dnipro, Ukraine, Ukraine
  • V.M. Suk SI “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of MH of Ukraine”, Dnipro, Ukraine, Ukraine



SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, neuroinvasion, neuroinflammation, neurotropy, neurologic complications, inflammatory response, protein S


Coronavirus infection is a systemic pathology resulting in impairment of the nervous system. The involvement of the central nervous system in COVID-19 is diverse by clinical manifestations and main mechanisms. The mechanisms of interrelations between SARS-CoV-2 and the nervous system include a direct virus-induced lesion of the central nervous system, inflammatory-mediated impairment, thrombus burden, and impairment caused by hypoxia and homeostasis. Due to the multi-factor mechanisms (viral, immune, hypoxic, hypercoagulation), the SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause a wide range of neurological disorders involving both the central and peripheral nervous system and end organs. Dizziness, headache, altered level of consciousness, acute cerebrovascular diseases, hypogeusia, hyposmia, peripheral neuropathies, sleep disorders, delirium, neuralgia, myalgia are the most common signs. The structural and functional changes in various organs and systems and many neurological symptoms are determined to persist after COVID-19. Regardless of the numerous clinical reports about the neurological and psychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 as before it is difficult to determine if they are associated with the direct or indirect impact of viral infection or they are secondary to hypoxia, sepsis, cytokine reaction, and multiple organ failure. Penetrated the brain, COVID-19 can impact the other organs and systems and the body in general. Given the mechanisms of impairment, the survivors after COVID-19 with the infection penetrated the brain are more susceptible to more serious diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, cognitive decline, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases. Given the multi-factor pathogenesis of COVID-19 resulting in long-term persistence of the clinical symptoms due to impaired neuroplasticity and neurogenesis followed by cholinergic deficiency, the usage of Neuroxon® 1000 mg a day with twice-day dosing for 30 days. Also, a long-term follow-up and control over the COVID-19 patients are recommended for the prophylaxis, timely determination, and correction of long-term complications.


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