DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0713.16.5.2020.209253

Diencephalic brain lesions of herpesvirus etiology in humans: a literature review and a clinical case

D.V. Maltsev

Abstract


This research review focuses on the analysis of clinical trial results and case reports from scientometric electronic databases of peer-reviewed journals PubMed and Embase and the author’s own archive on herpesvirus lesions of the diencephalic brain with selective or combined hypothalamus and/or hypophysis involvement. Issues of etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, semiotics of clinical manifestations of neuroinfection depending on the type of virus and mechanism of its penetration into the CNS, validated approaches to diagnosis, principles of differential diagnosis, mechanisms of formation of typical complications and methods of rational therapy are considered in detail. At the end of the article, a typical clinical case is described following the presented topic from the author’s own medical practice. In particular, the development of the diencephalic encephalitis of HHV-6 etiology in a 36-year-old patient with a primary deficiency of myeloperoxidase phagocytes (G/A 463 MPO het) is considered. There was a lesion of the posterior pituitary with a picture of the syndrome of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and anterior pituitary with manifestations of the central form of acquired hypogonadism. Antiviral treatment with valganciclovir at a dose of 450 mg twice daily orally for 3 months to suppress the reproduction of HHV-6, substitution therapy with testosterone for 1 year to eliminate the manifestations of hypogonadism until the restoration of hypothalamic-hypophysis axis and background immunotherapy with human interferon-gamma at a dose of 1 million IU day after day IM overnight for 6 consecutive months to restore the activity of the specified microbicidal enzyme in blood according to the National protocol of medical care to patients with a myeloperoxidase deficiency of phagocytes. There was complete recovery of the patient without certain residual defects.


Keywords


diencephalic encephalitis; herpesviruses; myeloperoxidase deficiency; syndrome of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone; review

References


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