DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0713.6.108.2019.180531

Morphofunctional peculiarities of brain development and circulatory system in ontogenesis

T.K. Znamenskaya, V.Yu. Martyniuk, V.B. Shveikina

Abstract


The article deals with the current problem of neonatology and pediatric neurology, in particular perinatal neurology, — morphofunctional peculiarities of brain development in ontogenesis. The formation of nervous system defects in a newborn is presented, with harmful features taken into account. In the process of systematization of congenital birth defects, much attention is paid to the timing, the period and the nature of damage. Under the influence of harmful factors, on day 23–28 of intrauterine development (dorsal induction) when neural plate is forming with separation of cerebrum and spinal cord, severe developmental defects occur, such as anencephaly, encephalocele, meningomyelocele. On 30–32 days of gestation (ventral induction), when the front brain, olfactory bulbs, brain hemispheres, lateral ventricles and basal ganglia are separated, holoprosencephaly appears. In the terms of 45 days — 5 months of gestation (neuron proliferation) when cellular mitosis takes place and the further brain tissue development is in progress, true micro­ and macrocephaly forms. Under the action of harmful factors on 5th month of gestation (the peak of cell migration) due to changes of neuron migrations into certain zones of the brain (i.e., cerebral cortex), the appearance of the following brain disorders is possible as pachygyria, microgyria, polymicrogyria, hete­
rotrophy. In 6–9 months of prenatal development (organizational stage) when the layer­by­layer location of cortex neurons, the formation of synaptic contacts, glial proliferation and differentiation takes place, such dysfunctions as cell metabolism disorders, dysfunction or delay of myelination occur, which in future could lead to the consequences of organic brain damage and to the states when the brain is not able to handle natural load associated with delivery itself, namely the failure of cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptation. Essential questions of neurogenesis, gliogenesis, blood­brain barrier and blood vascularization system formation on different stages of foetus development are being discussed in the literature review. Pathogenic factors on different stages of brain development lead to the following peculiarities: migration and differentiation of cell elements, synaptogenesis and myelinization, disturbances of vascular architectonics and cerebral circulation, the state of liquor system and the formation of blood­brain barrier — it defines, as a result, the peculiarities of morphological features of damage to the central nervous system and clinical variety of neurological symptoms in newborns, particularly in preterm babies. Practical significance of the above­mentioned features of brain development in ontogenesis lies in the evaluation of the nature of morphofunctional changes in the central nervous system of newborns, which allows us to diagnose them timely and define treatment plan to avoid negative consequences.


Keywords


brain; newborn; morphofunctional peculiarities; ontogenesis; review

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