DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0713.5.107.2019.176708

Cerebral venous thrombosis (case report)

O.V. Sayko, Yu.I. Malankevich

Abstract


Cerebral venous thrombosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis are rare (up to 1 % of all cases of cerebral infarction). According to the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis (ISCVT, 2004), the annual incidence is 3–4 cases per 1 million adults. The mortality rate for this disease is from 5 to 30 %. ISCVT determined the occlusion frequency by localization as follows: transverse sinus — 86 %, superior sagittal sinus — 62 %, straight sinus — 18 %, cortical veins — 17 %, internal jugular veins — 12 %, vein of Galen and internal cerebral veins — 11 %. The main risk factors for the development of cerebral venous thrombosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the population are infectious inflammatory processes (otitis, mastoiditis, sinusitis, septic conditions) and non-infectious causes (traumatic brain injury, tumours, surgical interventions and installing pacemakers or central venous catheters). Diseases contributing to this pathology are: hemodynamic disorders (congestive heart failure, dehydration), blood diseases (polycythemia, sickle cell anemia, thrombocytopenia) and coagulopathy (disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, deficiency of antithrombin, protein C and protein S), as well as thrombophilic conditions associated with pregnancy, childbirth and oral contraceptives, antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic vasculitis. In 15 % of cases, the cause of sinus thrombosis remains unknown. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is characterized by a very diverse clinical course, difficult diagnosis, diverse etiology and prognosis. One of the complications of sinus thrombosis is a stroke. It is observed in about 30 % of patients and often leads to death. The article describes the clinical case of cerebral venous thrombosis, which was complicated by a fatal bihemispheric subarachnoid parenchymal hemorrhage.

Keywords


cerebral venous thrombosis; cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; venous stroke; causes; disease prognosis

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