DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0713.5.99.2018.142970

Autism spectrum disorder in children: literary reference and own clinical observation

D.S. Khapchenkova, S.A. Dubyna, V.I. Cherkay

Abstract


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is known as a complex developmental disability. Experts believe that autism presents itself during the first three years of a person’s life. There may be many different factors that make a child more likely to have ASD, including environmental, biologic and genetic factors. The condition is the result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, affecting development of the person’s communication and social interaction skills. Children with autism have issues with non-verbal communication, a wide range of social interactions, and activities that include an element of play and/or banter. Children with ASD often have problems with social, emotional, and communication skills. They might repeat certain behaviors and might not want change in their daily activities. Many people with ASD also have different ways of learning, paying attention, or reacting to things. Signs of ASD manifest during early childhood and typically last throughout a person’s life. Children or adults with ASD might: not point at objects to show interest (for example, not point at an airplane flying over); not look at objects when another person points at them; have trouble relating to others or not have an interest in other people at all; avoid eye contact and want to be alone; have trouble understanding other people’s feelings or talking about their own feelings; prefer not to be held or cuddled, or might cuddle only when they want to; appear to be unaware when people talk to them, but respond to other sounds; be very interested in people, but not know how to talk, play, or relate to them; repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in place of normal language; have trouble expressing their needs using typical words or motions; not play “pretend” games; repeat actions over and over again; have trouble adapting when a routine changes; have unusual reactions to the way things smell, taste, look, feel, or sound; lose skills they once had (for example, stop saying words they were using). Diagnosing ASD can be difficult since there is no medical test, like a blood test, to diagnose the disorders. Doctors look at the child’s behavior and development to make a diagnosis. ASD can sometimes be detected at 18 months or younger. By the age of 2, the diagnosis can be considered very reliable by an experienced professional. The article described own clinical observation of the patient with ASD. The first manifestations of this disease, data of laboratory and instrumental researches of child are described. The course of psychotherapy by the method of Applied Behavior Analysis in conjunction with the method of sensorimotor correction is described. The positive effect of ongoing psychotherapy in the patient is marked.

Keywords


children; autism; social maladjustment

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