Brain metastasis as a primary manifestation of underlying disease

Yu.V. Dumanskyi, O.Yu. Stoliarova, O.V Syniachenko, Ye.D. Yehudina, F.A. Stepko


Background. The purpose of our work was to determine the incidence and nature of metastatic brain lesions in lung cancer (LC), correlation with other clinical signs of the disease (localization, shape, histology, degree of differentiation and staging of tumor, metastasis to other parts of the body), to identify the prognostic criteria of possible brain metastases (BM), to study the side effects of anticancer therapy and to evaluate the impact of BM on survival of the patients. Materials and methods. The study included 1,071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the exa-mined patients had been operated previously for underlying disease, all patients received radiation therapy after establishment of the diagnosis, 3/4 of them underwent combined radiochemotherapy. Results. BM occur in 8 % of patients with LC (2.2 times more often in women) that is influenced by the peripheral form, histological variant (squamous and large cell carcinoma) and integrated severity of the tumor process, the presence of exudative malignant pleurisy, tumor invasion into the mediastinum and concomitant diabetes mellitus type 2. The severity of BM in lung cancer directly correlates with metastasis in the supraclavicular, inguinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, pericardium, adrenal glands, abdominal wall, liver and pancreas. The predictor of BM in patients with lung cancer may be elevated blood level of transforming growth factor β1, vascular endothelial growth factor and osteopontin. In 6 % of radiochemotherapy complications, there were detected acute cerebrovascular accidents of varying severity, which is closely associated with hypertension and diabetes, the form of LC, the number of metastases in the lymph nodes (but not in the brain) and with antitumor alky-lating agents used in comprehensive treatment. Conclusions. The so-called “brain form” of LC is characterized by greater severity, requires correction of drug chemotherapy, determines the survival of the patients that is lower in patients with BM.


cancer; lung; brain; metastases


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