Nervous system disorders in prematurely born children with an extremely low body weight (clinical and magnetic resonance imaging comparisons)
Background. Today, a problem of the premature delivery remains the relevant in the whole world. The birth of children with extremely low weight increases the risk of mortality and incidence of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay and epilepsy. The aim of research is to evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the nervous system in children born with an extremely low body weight. Materials and methods. From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014, in Kherson region 209 children were born with an extremely low body weight, and 150 children died despite the timely implementation of the modern reanimation measures. In all survived children (n = 59), neurological status was evaluated, Denver Developmental Screening Test, MRI of the brain were performed. Results. Children born with extremely low body weight made up 0.21 % of all newborns and 5.24 % of preterm infants. The incidence of death cases among children with extremely low body weight remains high — 71.77 %. Cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 30 (50.85 %) children, epilepsy — in 11 (18.64 %), language and self-service delay was detected in 59 (100 %) children. According to the magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, 13 (22.03 %) children had the cystic lesions of the white matter of the brain, 37 (62.71 %) — focal pathological changes, 54 children (91.53 %) — ventricular dilation. Conclusions. Indicators of the brain volume of children born with an extremely low body weight are significantly lower than those of healthy children of the corresponding age. Timely standardized MRI of the brain provides early diagnosis of damage to the nervous system and prediction of future development of the child.
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