Modern aspects of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: the use of B-cell biomarkers in clinical practice

N.O. Negrych, S.L. Myronovskij, T.I. Nehrych, Yu.Ya. Kit, R.S. Stoika


Background. The purpose was to investigate the correlation between the level of 48 kDa form of unconventional myosin 1c (48 kDa Myo1c) (marker of apoptosis in cells) in the blood serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and features of the disease debut in the context of the modern understanding of the key role of B lymphocytes even at the early stage of pathological process in MS. Materials and methods. 61 patients with multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy donors aged 19–57 years participated in the research. Methods of investigation: clinical (complaints, life and disease history, general and neurological examination), laboratory (identification of 48 kDa Myo1c in the blood serum by consequent serum protein sedimentation, electrophoresis and digital analysis of electrophoregrams; presence of Myo1c was confirmed by Western blot with anti-Myo1c antibodies). Results. In the group of MS patients with high level of 48 kDa Myo1c, the average age of the patients at the time of disease onset was the lowest, but significant statistical relationships between concentrations of 48 kDa Myo1c in the serum of patients and age of MS debut were not found.
At the onset of MS as a reduction of visual acuity, the average level of 48 kDa Myo1c in the blood serum of patients was revealed significantly more often, and at the onset of oculomotor disorders — a low level, indicating a less favorable course of the disease due to the low apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes. Levels of serum 48 kDa Myo1c were not significantly dependent on the disease activity in MS patients at the time of examination and blood sampling, and therefore the use of this biomarker is possible not only during the exacerbation of the disease, but also during remission. Conclusions. Modern researches show that in MS B lymphocytes are involved not only in the synthesis of oligoclonal autoantibodies, but also in the antibody-independent mechanisms, especially in the presentation of antigens to T cells, synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the formation of ectopic lymphoid follicle-like clusters in the central nervous system. Therefore, it is a reasonable to use B cell markers, including 48 kDa Myo1c, in clinical practice, particularly, to predict the course of MS aggressiveness and effectiveness of disease-modifying therapies.


multiple sclerosis; B cells; biomarkers; unconventional myosin


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