Brain injury in patients with acute TIA: clinical features in different TIA subtypes

O.Ye. Fartushna, S.M. Vinychuk

Abstract


Background. Transient symptoms do not exclude the possibility of associated brain injury (BI). According to different authors, from 4 to 20 % of patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) progress to stroke within 90 days, half — within the first 48 hours. Recent studies have shown that new ischemic BI in patients with TIA increases the risk of stroke by 4 times during next 90 days as compared to the patients with TIA without BI. Therefore, studying the causes and the nature of BI in patients with TIA is very important. The purpose of the study was to describe clinical features of TIA with BI and without it, and to study the causes and the nature of new ischemic BI using diffusion weighted magnetic-resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) in patients with different TIA subtypes (as to TOAST criteria). Materials and methods. DW-MRI has been performed within the first 24 hours for 178 patients with acute TIA treated in our hospital between September 2006 and December 2009. All these patients have also been checked clinically with Doppler ultrasound and transthoracic echocardiography. The cases were reviewed by two neurologists to establish the correlation between the diagnoses. Patients with TIA were divided into 2 groups, according to the MRI results: group 1 — TIA with new ischemic BI on DWI (n = 66 (37.0 %)), group 2 — TIA without BI (n = 112 (63.0 %)). Results. Patients with TIA and BI had a significantly greater volume (p < 0.05) and duration (p < 0.001) of neurological deficit compared with persons with TIA without BI. The new ischemic BI diameter ranged from 1.5 to 26 mm (13.4 ± 1.2 mm), and, as well as localization, it was significantly different in TIA subtypes (p < 0.001). Most often, BI were determined in cardioembolic (39.4 %) and small-vessel occlusion (25.8 %) TIA. Conclusions. The duration and volume of the neurological deficit were much higher in patients with TIA and new ischemic BI than without it, and differed depending on TIA subtypes.


Keywords


ischemic brain injury; transient ischemic attack; stroke risk; diffusion weighted imaging; pathological subtypes of transient ischemic attack

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0713.3.89.2017.104238

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